Tempering, as a term, is used to comprehend both hardening and drawing; as a process it depends mainly upon judgment instead of skill, and has no such connection with forging as to be performed by smiths only. Tempering requires a different fire from those employed in forging, and also more care and precision than blacksmiths can exercise, unless there are furnaces and baths especially arranged for tempering tools.
Another principle to be noticed in connection with hammers and forging processes is that of the inertia of the piece operated upon—a matter of no little importance in the heavier kinds of work.
I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.
There is no use in entering upon detailed explanations of what a learner has before him. Shafts are seen wherever there is machinery; it is easy to see the extent to which they are employed to transmit power, and the usual manner of arranging them. Various text-books afford data for determining the amount of torsional strain that shafts of a given diameter will bear; explain that their capacity to resist torsional strain is as the cube of the diameter, and that the deflection from transverse strains is so many degrees; with many other matters that are highly useful and proper to know. I will therefore not devote any space to these things here, but notice some of the more obscure conditions that pertain to shafts, such as are demonstrated by practical experience rather than deduced from mathematical data. What is said will apply especially to what is called line-shafting for conveying and distributing power in machine-shops and other manufacturing establishments. The following propositions in reference to shafts will assist in understanding what is to follow:】【
To obtain a true understanding of the nature of power is by no means the difficulty for a beginner that is generally supposed ; and when once reached, the truth will break upon the mind like a sudden discovery, and ever afterwards be associated with mechanism and motion whenever seen. The learner will afterwards find himself analysing the flow of water, the traffic in the streets, the movement of ships and trains; even the act of walking will become a manifestation of power, all clear and intelligible, without that air of mystery that is otherwise inseparable from the phenomena of motion. If the learner will go on farther, and study the connection between heat and force, the mechanical equivalent of heat when developed into force and motion, and the reconversion of power into heat, he will have commenced at the base of what must constitute a thorough knowledge of mechanics, without which he will have to continually proceed under difficulties.
An engine lathe is for many reasons called the master tool in machine fitting. It is not only the leading tool so far as performing a greater share of the work; but an engine lathe as an organised machine combines, perhaps, a greater number of useful and important functions, than any machine which has ever been  devised. A lathe may be employed to turn, bore, drill, mill, or cut screws, and with a strong screw-feed may be employed to some extent for planing; what is still more strange, notwithstanding these various functions, a lathe is comparatively a simple machine without complication or perishable parts, and requires no considerable change in adapting it to the various purposes named.
A few years ago, or even at the present time, many school-books in use which treat of mechanics in connection with natural philosophy are so arranged as to hinder a learner from grasping a true conception of force, power, and motion; these elements were confounded with various agents of transmission, such as wheels, wedges, levers, screws, and so on. A learner was taught to call these things "mechanical powers," whatever that may mean, and to compute their power as mechanical elements. In this manner was fixed in the mind, as many can bear witness, an erroneous conception of the relations between power and the means for its transmission; the two things were confounded together, so that years, and often a lifetime, has not served to get rid of the idea of power and mechanism being the same. To such teaching can be traced nearly all the crude ideas of mechanics so often met with among those well informed in other matters. In the great change from empirical rules to proved constants, from special and experimental knowledge to the application of science  in the mechanic arts, we may, however, go too far. The incentives to substitute general for special knowledge are so many, that it may lead us to forget or underrate that part which cannot come within general rules.
As a means for transmitting power, shafts afford the very important advantage that power can be easily taken off at any point throughout their length, by means of pulleys or gearing, also in forming a positive connection between the motive-power and machines, or between the different parts of machines. The capacity of shafts in resisting torsional strain is as  the cube of their diameter, and the amount of torsional deflection in shafts is as their length. The torsional capacity being based upon the diameter, often leads to the construction of what may be termed diminishing shafts, lines in which the diameter of the several sections are diminished as the distance from the driving power increases, and as the duty to be performed becomes less. This plan of arranging line shafting has been and is yet quite common, but certainly was never arrived at by careful observation. Almost every plan of construction has both advantages and disadvantages, and the best means of determining the excess of either, in any case, is to first arrive at all the conditions as near as possible, then form a "trial balance," putting the advantages on one side and the disadvantages on the other, and footing up the sums for comparison. Dealing with this matter of shafts of uniform diameter and shafts of varying diameter in this way, there may be found in favour of the latter plan a little saving of material and a slight reduction of friction as advantages. The saving of material relates only to first cost, because the expense of fitting is greater in constructing shafts when the diameters of the different pieces vary; the friction, considering that the same velocity throughout must be assumed, is scarcely worth estimating.
The reciprocating cutting movement being but four inches or less, a crank is obviously the best means to produce this motion, and as the movement is transverse to the rack, which may be long and unwieldy, it is equally obvious that the cutting motion should be performed by the tools instead of the rack.
This importance of shop processes in machine construction is generally realised by proprietors, but not thoroughly understood in all of its bearings; an apprentice may notice the continual effort that is made to augment the production of engineering-works, which is the same thing as shortening the processes.Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.
"I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.
One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.
Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.
Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.
The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization)
the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
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